|The Flag of Djibouti||The Emblem of Djibouti||The National Anthem|
Djibouti is a republic presidential and pluralistic. The President of the Republic who is also head of government, is elected by direct universal suffrage for 6 years. He appoints the different ministers on Prime Minister’s proposal and may dismiss them. Ministers are responsible for implementing government policy. The legislative power is vested in the National Assembly consists of a single chamber with 65 members elected by universal suffrage on a list for 5 years.
There is a mutual independence of the President of the Republic and the National Assembly. The President does not have the power to dissolve the assembly and that – it cannot, in turn, to question the President’s responsibility.
Other institutions provided for by the constitution are the Constitutional Council, the Higher Judicial Council, the High Court of Justice and the Ombudsman.
The Horn of Africa has always been a cultural and commercial crossroads between Africa and Asia, and especially Arabian peninsula. Contacts with populations of Arabian peninsula intensified in the 7th century with the spread of Islam in the region and the creation of Muslim kingdoms. The first lasting contacts with European dates from 1839. In 1862, local leaders of the country signed treaties with the French who founded Djibouti in 1888, the current capital of the Republic of Djibouti.
The territory became a colony under the name of French Somaliland and French Territory of the Afars and Issas in 1967.Après three decades of advocacy and protest led by the LPAI (African People’s Independence League), the colonial power organized referendum May 8, 1977 where the majority of the territory’s population voted for independence.
The country gained independence 27 June 1977 as the Republic of Djibouti and Hassan Gouled Aptidon was appointed as the first President of the country.
Location & Geography
The Republic of Djibouti, with an area of 23,200 km2, is located in the Horn of Africa and shares borders with Eritrea in the north, Ethiopia in the west and south, and Somalia in the south – Est. It has a long coastline of 370 km, which overlooks the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden
The terrain is mainly a desert-like plain with some intermediate mountain ranges near the eastern border. There is one active volcano and there are seasonal streams that flow toward the sea or into the two salt lakes.
Djibouti is an important junction of communications in the Horn of Africa linking Europe to Asia via the Red Sea, on the one hand, and Africa to the Gulf countries in the Indian Ocean, on the other hand. Thus, placed on one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world, Djibouti has an indisputable geostrategic position. This position was reinforced by the new context that the fight against maritime piracy in the Gulf of Aden.
Djibouti has a semiarid climate that is very hot and dry. There are two seasons, a dry season from May to October and a relatively cool season from November to April. Temperatures range from very warm during the months of December, January and February (with average temperatures between 23 – 29 °C) to extremely hot in July (31 – 41 °C), with oppressive humidity adding to the uncomfortable conditions.
The rainfall on the coast usually occurs between November and March, whereas in the interior it falls between April and October. Average annual precipitation for Djibouti City is 130 mm.
The population of Djibouti is estimated by 1998 to 680,000 inhabitants, more than two-thirds live in Djibouti City, the capital of the country. The majority of the population (98%) is Sunni Muslim rite. The population growth rate is very high (6%) of which 3% of the migratory flows and young people under 20 years account for nearly 53% of the population.
The official languages are French and Arabic. Somali and Afar are the national languages.
Djibouti is an extraordinary country to explore, its geological sites, which are unique, have always, and attracted scientists and adventurers in search of extreme sensations and change. Indeed, from the chain of mountains in the North, including the Day relict forest, to the sandy coast in the East, going through the lunar and volcanic landscapes in Lake Abbe, the diversity of Djibouti’s landscape comes to life the moment your plane begins its descent with promises of a long list of things to do.
There are great opportunities for island-hopping between Moucha, Maskali, Sable Blanc and Sept Frères islands. Djibouti is so much more than just a beautiful destination with sandy beached and clear azure waters. If you’re into relaxation and just kicking back and enjoying the down-time, Djibouti has all you’ll ever need, from a selection of beaches and islands, to a wide selection of places where to acquire the special glow of a tan all year around, refreshed by dips into crystal waters or even a snorkel to introduce you to the amazing world just beneath the waves.
You may dive in Djibouti If you’re a diver, expert or beginner, then you’ve come to the right place for unforgettable diving in waters teeming with marine life and spectacular underwater landscapes. A section of professional land-based and live-aboard dive operators will introduce you to a number of exceptional sites where surprisingly few have ventured. The waters of the Red Sea attract divers from all over the world and waters of Djibouti are renowned as some of the best in the region.
Lake Assal You will also find breathtaking landscapes and various excursions will introduce you to Lake Assal, one of the wonders of Djibouti. It is the world’s third largest salt water lake and the continent’s lowest point 150 meters below sea level.
Economic and social development of Djibouti has changed considerably since 2006. In 2011 and 2012, economic growth should reach 4.6 and 5.1% respectively, with the resumption of port activities and the influx of foreign direct investment (FDI) which is encouraged, except in public utilities.
Foreign investment primarily goes to the services sector (transportation, construction, finance, and hotel/gastronomy), and foreign banks dominate the banking sector.
The economy was supported by a massive influx of capital in the form of foreign direct investment, almost exclusively from Gulf States and China. Investment was mainly achieved in transport (especially port operations), real estate, hotels and banking. Investment has been concentrated in capital-intensive activities, essentially in the tertiary sector, the chief driving force of economic growth in Djibouti.
Djibouti encourage foreign investment and the Djibouti National Investment Promotion Agency (NIPA), created in 2001, promotes private-sector investment, facilitates investment operations, and works to modernize the country’s regulatory framework.
As part of Vision 2035, the Republic of Djibouti focuses on the development of roads, ports, airports and telecommunications infrastructure in order to make. Djibouti hub of regional and international traffic.
To this end, massive investment effort in the amount of approximately $ 6 billion has been undertaken by the ports of Djibouti and Free Zones Authority (DPFZA) to expand its activities and support economic growth of its neighbors such as Ethiopia and the newest independent nation of South Sudan.
The 42 acre Djibouti Free Zone has been operational since 2004 and can house up to 100 companies. In July 2012, the government approved a new 57 hectares free zone (Jabanaas Free Zone) just outside of the capital.
With an exchange rate policy focused on maintaining a fixed exchange rate with the dollar, the Bank of Djibouti has suffered financial liberalism that allows it to become a regional financial base offering services attractive, vibrant and safe for regional operators. The financial sector also benefits from the extra boost in the submarine cable system that ensures fast and secure transactions. Currently, Djibouti has eleven banks serving a population of 800,000.
The banking sector plays a vital role in the national economy and geographical position of Djibouti and its political and economic stability have enabled the nation to create a dynamic financial sector.
The presence of a freely convertible and stable currency combined with a unique geographical position and banking infrastructure and a modern and reliable telecommunication network makes the financial sector in Djibouti dynamic and attractive. Regional investors and businessmen are welcome to Djibouti. We provide all the facilities you need quickly and safely. It is unique in Africa.
Djibouti has no foreign exchange restrictions. There are no limitations on converting or transferring funds, or on the inflow and outflow of cash. The Djibouti franc, which has been pegged to the U.S. dollar since 1949, is stable. The fixed exchange rate is 177.71 Djibouti francs to the dollar.
The foreign policy of the Republic of Djibouti has encouraged the cordial agreement and the peaceful settlement of disputes between states, but hardly bend is a compromise and half perverse solutions.
It is modern, progressive and proactive especially focused particularly on Diplomatic actions for prevention, management and resolution of conflicts.
The foreign policy of the Republic of Djibouti remains a formidable instrument relay the aspirations of the Djiboutian people and their contribution to peace and development in the sub-region and the world.
Peace and justice as a value, the active diplomacy and persistence as the means and prosperity for all as ultimate ambition, are the pillars of the foreign policy of the Republic of Djibouti.
In Djibouti since 2000, significant progress has been made in education. The net enrollment rate increased from 43% in 2002 to 66% in 2006. In urban areas, 67% of children are enrolled in primary school, against 49% in rural areas. Gender equality at the national level is almost reached
The University Centre, established in 2001 was turned the first full University of Djibouti was established in October 2006. The University of Djibouti is the only French-language university in the Arabic and English regional context the Horn of Africa. This feature makes it a privileged partner of the Francophone and the teaching of French in the region. The University of Djibouti maintains a strong academic partnership with several universities and institutions French. The Faculty of Engineering was inaugurated on September 29, 2013 and funded by the Turkish government.
The recent creation of the Faculty of Medicine of Djibouti for the training of doctors on site, reinforce training initial and continuing training of health workers.
Agriculture in Djibouti is very limited and restricted. There is severe scarcity of water in the countryside of the Djibouti Africa. So there is not much scope for varied forms of vegetation and agriculture in Djibouti. Djibouti agriculture contributed about 4 percent or little more to the GDP of the country.
Agriculture consists of growing of tomatoes in the country that is usually for the purpose of household utilization. Date palms are also produced along the coastal fringes of the country.
Djibouti geography does not support much variety in the flora of the country. The production in the area of agriculture is limited to a certain extent.
In Djibouti, farm animals have always received greater importance in comparison to farming and agriculture. The agriculture in Djibouti consists of vegetables and fruits. The agricultural products of the country of Djibouti also consist of goats, animal hides, camels and sheep. In the year 2001, the trade in of grain in Djibouti amounted to about 37,970 tons.
Djiboutians enjoy meeting foreigners but not all are comfortable speaking English. French language ability is helpful for business and socializing in the community. Djiboutian socializing is in the form of dinners or get-togethers. They are numbers of clubs ( Lions and Rotary Clubs) in Djibouti and provide opportunities to meet members of the international community.